This Appendix gives further explanation for those who wish to verify the Bible’s Chronology from the Exodus to the Temple. The results are summarised on this Chart. (Chart also at the bottom of the page)
(1) The sending forth of the spies happened early in the 2nd year from the Exodus. So, from the Exodus to the Sending forth of the spies we have 2 years: “it came to pass on the 20th day of the 2nd month in the 2nd year that the cloud was taken up from off the tabernacle of the testimony. And the children of Israel took their journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai, and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran. And they first took their journey according to the commandment of the Lord by the hand of Moses” (Numbers 10:11–13).
(2) There were 40 years from the Exodus to the entry into Canaan.
Exodus 16:35: “the children of Israel did eat manna 40 years until they came to a land inhabited, they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of Canaan.”
Joshua 5:6: “For the children of Israel walked 40 years in the wilderness.”
Acts 7:36: “He brought them out (the Exodus) after that he had showed wonders and signs in the Land of Egypt, and in the Red Sea and in the WILDERNESS 40 YEARS.” Thus the time from the Sending of the Spies to the defeat of Jericho is 38 years.
(3) “So Joshua took the whole Land, according to all that the Lord said unto Moses, and Joshua gave it for an inheritance unto Israel according to all their divisions by their tribes. And the land rested from war” (Joshua 11:23).
We can find the time of this division from Joshua 14:7 and 14:10. Caleb is speaking at the time of the division. “40 years old was I when Moses the servant of the Lord sent me from Kadesh Barnea to spy out the land, and I brought him word again as it was in mine heart” (Joshua 14:7). “And now, behold, the Lord hath kept me alive, as He said, these 45 years even since the Lord spoke this word unto Moses, while the children of Israel wandered in the wilderness and now lo, I am this day 85 years old” (Joshua 14:10). Therefore the Division of the Land was in the 7th year after the defeat of Jericho.
(4) From the Division of the Land, Joshua continued to lead Israel. Joshua lived a few more years and died at 110 (Joshua 24:29). After Joshua, the elders of his generation who outlived him
continued the rulership of Israel (Joshua 24:31). During the time of Joshua and the elders Israel served the Lord. However when they died Israel turned against the Lord (Judges 2:8,10,11; 3:5,6,7). As a result God judged Israel with the first Servitude (Judges 3:8). The time period from the Division of the Land to the First Servitude (the final years of Joshua and the elders of his generation) is not given directly. This is the first of the gaps of this period.
(5) The next period is the first Servitude - under Chushan-Rishathaim king of Mesopotamia: “Therefore the anger of the lord was hot against Israel and He sold them into the hand of Chushan-Rishathaim king of Mesopotamia and the children of Israel served Chushan-Rishathaim 8 years” (Judges 3:8a).
The first Servitude lasted 8 years. You have got to serve somebody! They refused to serve God so ...!
(6) When Israel repented God raised up a deliverer-judge called Othniel (Judges 3:9). The Spirit of the Lord came upon him and he defeated Chushan-Rishathaim in war (Judges 3:10). (When you repent the Spirit of God will come on you and deliver you).
This ended the Servitude. “And the Land had rest 40 years.
And Othniel the son of Kenaz died” (Judges 3:11).
(7) The second Servitude: “So the children of Israel served Eglon the king of Moab 18 years” (Judges 3:14). You too allow your enemies to control you when you leave God.
(8) “So Moab was subdued that day under the hand of Israel. And the land had rest 80 years” (Judges 3:30). For 80 years under Ehud and Shamgar Israel lived under the blessing of God.
(9) The third Servitude. “And the children of Israel cried unto the Lord for he had 900 chariots of iron, and 20 years he (Jabin) mightily oppressed the children of Israel” (Judges 4:3).
(10) God raised up Deborah and Barak to deliver Israel.
“And the Land had rest 40 years” (Judges 5:31). So the next period is 40 years of rest with Deborah and Barak judging Israel.
(11) The 4th Servitude: “Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord and He delivered them into the hand of Midian 7 years” (Judges 6:1). They impoverished Israel, stealing her harvests (6:2–6). If you leave God, the devourer will prevail against you!
(12) God raised up Gideon in response to their cries: “Thus was Midian subdued before the children of Israel so that they lifted up their heads no more. And the country was in quietness 40 years in the days of Gideon” (Judges 8:28).
(13) After Gideon Abimelech ruled for 3 years: “When Abimelech had reigned 3 years over Israel” (Judges 9:22).
(14) “And after Abimelech there arose to defend Israel Tola.” (Judges 10:1a). “he judged Israel 23 years and died” (10:2).
(15) “after him arose Jair, a Gileadite, and judged Israel 22 years” (Judges 10:3).
*Gideon (40); Abimelech (3); Tola (23); Jair (22) makes 88 years.
(16) The 5th Servitude: “And the anger of the Lord was hot against Israel and He sold them into the hands of the Philistines and the children of Ammon. And that year they vexed and oppressed the children of Israel 18 years” (Judges 10:7,8a)
(17) God then raised up Jephthah: “Jephthah judged Israel 6 years” (Judges 12:7).
(18) “after him Ibzan of Bethlehem judged Israel and he judged Israel 7 years” (Judges 12:8, 9b).
(19) “after him Elon, a Zebulunite, judged Israel and he judged Israel 10 years” (Judges 12:11).
(20) “after him Abdon the son of Hillel, a Pirathonite judged Israel 8 years” (Judges 12:13,14b).
Thus the total time under Jephthah (6); Ibzan (7); Eglon (10) and Abdon (8 years) is 31 years.
(21) The 6th Servitude. “And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the Lord, and the Lord delivered them into the hand of the Philistines 40 years” (Judges 13:1).
This is the time of Samson’s ministry: “And he judged Israel in the days of the Philistines 20 years” (Judges 15:20; 16:31). At the start of the Philistine 40 years the Angel of the Lord appeared to a woman saying: “Behold now you are barren, and bear not but you shalt conceive and bear a son” (Judges 13:3). “he shall begin to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistines” (13:5b)
It would seem likely that Samson was born a year later, then at age 19 he began to be a judge and deliverer in Israel. He then judged Israel 20 years. This would account for the 40 years of the Philistines. Samson’s final blow against the Philistines ended Israel’s Servitude to them. Certainly after Samson’s death we hear no more about the 40 years oppression: “the dead which he slew at his death were more than they which he slew in his life” (Judges 16:30). As soon as the 40 years of the Philistines began, God moved to bring to birth a child who would protect and deliver Israel. Other judges brought deliverance to Israel ending the
Servitudes. Samson however was a type of Christ who only accomplished the final deliverance through his death.
(22) Eli. 1Samuel picks up the history of the judges of Israel where the book of Judges leaves off with the death of Samson in Judges 16:30, 31 (Judges 17–21 are an Appendix). The death of Samson is the last event in the Book of Judges. In 1 Samuel we now see Israel free from the Philistines and under the judgeship of Eli, the priest. He judged 40 years: “he had judged Israel 40 years.”
(23) The 7th Servitude. Now the same day that Eli died the Philistines had defeated Israel in battle (read 1 Samuel 4). Due to sin, Israel again came under the control of the Philistines. At that time the Philistines captured the Ark. Eli’s daughter-in-law gave birth to a son at that time naming him Ichabod meaning the glory has departed. She said: “The glory is departed from Israel because the ark of God was taken and because of her father-in-law and husband. And she said the glory is departed from Israel for the Ark of God is taken.” (1 Samuel 4:21,22). Now the Ark caused the Philistines trouble so they returned it within the year. “it came to pass, while the Ark abode in Kirjath Jearim, that the time was long for it was 20 years and all the house of Israel lamented after the Lord” (1 Samuel 7:2). After 20 years of
Servitude the people turned to the Lord. Samuel was the established prophet and judge in Israel for this whole period of 20 years (see 1 Samuel 3:20). So these 20 years under the Philistines were the beginning of Samuel’s time. Samuel was able to lead them in a complete repentance (1Samuel 7:3,4). He gathered Israel together at Mizpah where they repented (1Samuel 7:5,6). The Philistines moved in to make war on the assembly. With Divine help they were routed! There was a great victory at Mizpah! “So the Philistines were subdued and they came no more into the coast of Israel, and the hand of the Lord was against the Philistines all the days of Samuel” (1 Samuel 7:13). Thus the 7th Servitude ended as soon as Israel repented. This Servitude then lasted 20 years with Samuel the prophet and judge in Israel.
(24) Samuel continued to judge Israel during the next period of time from the Victory at Mizpah to the beginning of Saul’s reign. Israel entered a time of peace (1 Samuel 7:14) because God’s protection was again upon them. They were back in fellowship. The Bible does not directly tell us how long this period is so this is a 2nd gap in the record of this period of time.
(25) SAUL’S REIGN. The Old-Testament does not tell us how long Saul reigned but the New-Testament fills in this gap:
Acts 13:21: “afterward they desired a king and God gave unto them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, by the space of 40 years.” The reason the Old Testament is silent is because of Saul's rebellion early and so God declines to give it much recognition. All we are told is in 1Samuel 13:1,2a: “Saul reigned one year, and when he had reigned two years over Israel Saul chose him 3,000 men …” This tells us that in his 2nd year he rebelled and so the remainder of his reign is unreckoned time on his personal chronology. So he only reigned one year in fellowship with God and in the favour of God.
(26) DAVID: “the days that David reigned over Israel were 40 years: 7 years reigned he in Hebron and 33 years reigned he in Jerusalem” (1Kings 2:11).
(27) SOLOMON was given the Commission to build the Lord’s Temple. “In the 4th year was the foundation of the house of the Lord laid in the month of Ziv” (1Kings 6:37). “And in the 11th year in the month Bul which is the 8th month was the house finished throughout all the parts thereof, and according to all the fashion of it. So was he 7 years in building it” (1Kings 6:38).
After this came the time of furnishing the Temple which was a massive job in itself due to its splendour. This is described in
1Kings 7. “So was ended all the work that King Solomon made for the house of the Lord …” (1 Kings 7:51). As soon as this was done Solomon assembled all the elders of Israel to Jerusalem for the Dedication of the Temple (1Kings 8). At this time, God’s glory filled the Temple (1Kings 8:10). This great event with the manifestation of God’s glory marked the end of a Great 490 Year Jubilee Cycle. So the next period of time is the time spent furnishing the Temple. The Bible is silent as to how long this time was. We may guess that it would probably take a few years but we do not know. So this is another (a 3rd) gap in the record.
We will now apply the principles of time to fill in the 3 gaps:
1. The 450 year period of Acts 13:19,20 tells us the first gap (from the Division to the first Servitude under Chushan-Rishathaim must be 20 years.
2. From the Victory at Mizpah to the end of Samuel’s rule and the start of Saul’s reign. We can find this missing period from the 480 years of 1Kings 6:1. By adding up the total RECKONED YEARS during this period we can see it must be 10 years in order to get a total of 480 years.
3. The time spent in furnishing the Temple must be 3 years using the 490 year Jubilee principle. The Dedication could not be in the
same year as the completion of the building (8th month) since it was dedicated in the 7 month (1Kings 8:2)! So at the very least the furnishing had to take about a year. The 3 years were omitted because the Lord wanted us to discover it using the 490 year principle (from Daniel 9:24). Although the year is not given directly, Scripture gives us enough information to find it out. The Temple building was completed after 487 Redemption years. Another 3 years would complete a Great Jubilee Cycle from the Exodus to the Dedication of the Temple. (It also means we have a 490 year Cycle from the Dedication to the Decree of Artaxerxes).
Therefore the total time of building and furnishing the Temple was 10 years, so that from the Exodus to the Dedication of the Temple was 621 years (611 +10), but on God’s Redemption Chronology it was 490 years (480 + 10). Looking at the Chart you can confirm that the total years from the Exodus to the (on the left) are 621 years (611+10). The Redemption years (on the right) are 490 years (480+10). The difference of these two totals: 621–490 = 131 years is the unreckoned time! Now add up the times of the Servitudes and they come to 131 years! Praise the Lord! So we can see that all the scriptures harmonise, and all the pieces fit together perfectly into God’s overall Structure of Time, that reveals His Sovereign Plan and incorporates His spiritual principles. He is Lord of Time!